Eye Health And Diseases

Eye Health And Diseases

Our eyes are the most important sensory organ that enables us to see and perceive the outside world. Disturbances in different parts of the eye as a result of various diseases reduce the quality of vision and may even cause blindness. Early diagnosis and correct treatment of diseases are very important. The devices used in the eye examination allow easy recognition of many diseases. For this reason, at Biruni University Hospital, experienced specialists are using the most advanced eye examination devices, and perform meticulous work.



Cataracts are partial or complete clouding of the eye’s natural lens, as a result, image quality decreases, colors become faded, and light sensitivity may develop or, conversely, declines. Although cataracts are more common in middle and old age, it can also be congenital, or provoked by somatic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus), or by physical effects (ionizing radiation, trauma)

Today, surgery is the only means of treating cataracts. . The most common and modern method of cataract removal is called Phacoemulsification. In cataract surgery, the lens inside your eye that has become cloudy is removed and replaced with an artificial lens (called an intraocular lens, or IOL) to restore clear vision. The procedure typically is performed on an outpatient basis and does not require an overnight stay in a hospital or other care facility.

Retinal Diseases

The retina covers the inner wall of the eyeball. The most common retinal diseases are:

  • Yellow Spot Disease (Age-Related Macular Disease),

suspected in elderly patients with reduced vision and visual impairment. Treatment may require an intraocular injection

  • Diabetic Retinopathy

It is very important that all patients with diabetes have an annual retinal scan. This is one of the main causes of blindness, which can be prevented by early diagnosis and proper treatment. Treatment may require a laser, intraocular injection, or surgery.

  • Retinal Vascular Occlusion

This pathology is especially observed in patients with hypertension and diabetes. May affect the visual center, causing decreased vision. Treatment occurs with a laser and intraocular drug injection.

  • Retinal tear or detachment

Patients’ complaints often come down to a sudden decrease in visual acuity and the appearance of a dark veil in front of the eye (loss of field of view), respectively to the place of detachment, distortion of visible objects. Laser treatment may be sufficient if a retinal break is early detected. If a retinal detachment is detected, a necessary surgery called vitrectomy is needed. The surgery is performed mainly under the local anesthesia, in some cases under the general anesthesia .

In addition to the common diseases  described above, there are other diseases that can damage the retinal layer such as: congenital malformations, tumors, macular tears and injuries.


Glaucoma is an insidious disease that can be asymptomatic. In a healthy eye, a certain pressure is constantly maintained, which maintains a balance of fluid inflow and outflow. In glaucoma, such circulation is disturbed, fluid accumulates, and intraocular pressure begins to rise. The optic nerve and other structures of the eye experience an increased load, the blood supply to the eye is disturbed. As a result, the optic nerves atrophy, and the visual signals cease to flow into the brain. Peripheral vision worsens, and the zone of visibility becomes limited, this leads to blindless.

Today, the role of heredity in the development of many types of glaucoma is obvious, and any person with glaucoma in the immediate family (parents, brothers and sisters) is under the risk of developing that desease, especially after 40 years. It is recommended to  measure the eye pressure every 2 years at the age of 40 to 50 years and every year after 50 years, to that people.

In addition to the family history of glaucoma, those who: have been taking cortisone for a long time, have high hyperopia or nearsightedness, and diabetes or retinal diseases are also at risk for eye pressure. Drops are often sufficient for treatment. These drops must be used for a long time, often for life. Other treatment options are laser and surgery.

Corneal Diseases

Cornea is a transparent layer located in the front of the eye that allows the image to focus on the reticular layer and also protects the eye. The front surface of the cornea is the main refractive component of the eye (the other refractive component is the lens). Common diseases of the cornea include:

  • Keratitis – an infection or other factors that cause inflammation of the cornea. Early diagnosis and treatment are important.
  • Keratoconus is a genetically caused disease of the corneal tissue, leading to its dystrophy and thinning. The disease usually occurs in adolescence, but sometimes occurs in young people and progresses to about 40 years. Hard contact lenses, corneal cross-linking, implantation of intrastromal rings, or corneal transplant may be required for treatment.
  • Dry eye syndrome(DES),
  • also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS);

Patients with dry eye syndrome are complaining on tingling, burning, redness, sometimes blurred vision, eye fatigue, or difficulty using contact lenses. Inadequate or poor quality of the lacrimal layer, resulting excessive evaporation of the surface of the cornea, and formation of dry patches. This disease, that reduces the quality of life. In this case, eye drop treatment usually brings a relieve.


Uveitis is inflamation of the middle layer of the eye – the uvea( also called the uveal layer, uveal coat, uveal tract, vascular tunic or vascular layerthe choroid). Uveitis caused by various causes(due to infections or rheumatic diseases) and affect one or both eyes. The symptoms are:


  • Blurred vision
  • Flying flies and spots
  • Eye pain
  • Redness
  • Light sensitivity

Early diagnosis of the disease is important to avoid secondary problems associated with uveitis. Drops are prescribed for treatment. Patients with prolonged episodes of uveitis may develop cataracts, eye pressure, problems with the retina, and cornea, therefore additional procedures and surgical intervention may be required.


Baby Eye Health

Early diagnosis of eye diseases in children is of great importance.

The first scheduled examination of a healthy full-term baby by a pediatric ophthalmologist is carried out in 1-2 months. The main purpose of the examination is to exclude congenital pathologies of the visual system, such as congenital cataracts, congenital glaucoma, a malignant tumor of the retina(retinoblastoma and other changes in the fundus and in the optical media of the eye).

At 6-8 months old – the second stage of the examination of the child’s vision. At this age, it is possible to establish precisely such diagnoses as strabismus, nystagmus, partial atrophy of the optic nerves. As a rule, these diseases are also accompanied by refractive pathology. If any diagnosis is established, it is possible to take the first therapeutic measures from this age.

The third scheduled examination, during which the children’s ophthalmologist could more accurately determine the refraction of the child’s eyes, should take place at 10-12 months old. At this age, high hyperopia, astigmatism, and congenital myopia are diagnosed.

Be very attentive to your child’s eyesight. Regular preventive examinations by an ophthalmologist from early childhood is a guarantee of a healthy vision.

Take your child’s complaints  for eye pain, dryness (feeling sand), fatigue, and blurred vision seriously. But do not panic. It is better to go through an ophthalmologist check up again to make sure the alarm was false. If the doctor determine the presence of pathology of the child’s vision, then the timely treatment could help to restore the child’s vision.